Definition Of Robotic Locomotion Technique
Robot locomotion technique is a collection of various functions used by robots to move or walk themselves from one place to another. The mechanism that makes any robot capable to move according to its surrounding environment is known robot locomotion technique. The complex central nervous system (CNS) controls the entire functionality of locomotive robots and it generates commands at cortical and spinal levels to incorporate these commands with necessary feedback responses that receive from its controlling mechanism. All movements and necessary reactions are important for any robotic machine.
There are many types of locomotion techniques and let’s talk about that technique in brief:
- Wheeled Robotic Locomotion Technique:
Wheeled locomotion is one of the most admired robot technologies that have been integrated into the design and mobile robotic development because this locomotive feature is easy and efficient to control. Besides this, maintaining proper balance is not a big problem in this locomotion type as the wheels are in direct contact of ground at all times just because proper amount balance is required in case of two or three wheel robots. Good suspension system is another important characteristic for maintaining appropriate balance in more than two wheels robots. Subject of maneuverability, controlling power and traction capability of wheeled robots is more important to resolve than concentrating on its balance because a wheeled robot needs to be capable of maintaining full functional capacity when performing on varying ground surface conditions.
- Legged Robotic Locomotion Technique:
Legged locomotion consists of various robots that come with one, two, four and sex legs and in this category of robots must have fine coordination between multiple legs for good locomotion. Legged locomotion technology consumes more power while executing there working activities such as walk, jump, climbing or going down ward etc. Legged robots are best suitable for rough as well as for smooth terrain surfaces but it requires extra number of motors to achieve different movement reactions due to irregular surfaces that makes it consume more operational power. Working complexities depends upon the number of legs that any robot has i.e. more legs simply increases the efficiency of working complexity of any robotic system.
- Slip / Skid Locomotion Technique:
In slip / skid locomotion, mini robotic vehicle systems are developed that are steered with the help of moving tracks with different speed variations in different environment conditions. It provides a huge amount of stability feature due to large contact area of track.
- One Legged Robotic System:
One legged robots are also known as hopper just because the motion performed by one legged is only hopping as it has only one point of contact between the foot of robot and the ground. The one legged or hopper can maneuver over rough terrain surfaces by taking a steady start and its dynamic movement & stability is the main key feature as central point of gravity actively shifting its mass.
- Two Legged Robotic System:
Two legged robots or humanoids are very popular in countries like USA, Japan and in many european union countries and there are various famous examples of two legged robots presently used by many countries, out of which very well famous one is Honda Asimo Robot developed by Japan which is a humanoid robot, 130cm tall and 50 kg in weight, walking speed of 3 KMP and running speed of 7KPH. Topio robot is another example of humanoid robots made by a Vietnam robotics manufacturing company which uses a hybrid processors, artificial neural networks along with 200 fps technology (frames per second) to execute its camera functioning.
- Three Legged Robotic System:
Three legged robots commonly known as tripod robots and most renowned robot of this category is Strider robot & in this robot two legs are acting as posture and third one leg is swinging. The robot gain its stability from its unique notion of actuate passive dynamic locomotion and can also change its direction while walking position. The movements of the robot are achieved by pushing centre of gravity outside of body and approaches toward distance in mode of balancing action.
- Four Legged Robotic System:
Four legged robots or quadrupedal robot category was first designed by Sony Company in 1998 named Aibo (pet series robot), whose models were released every year till the 2005 in three different phases of generation. Some significant features of this robot model were the use of microphone capable to record nearby sounds and had installed head sensors along with altering lights that could show emotions. Some further animal based four legged robots have been developed for research based works, entertainment activities and can even show there emotional bonding emotions with human touch or interaction. Titan is another example of four legged robot developed by Tokyo Institute of Technology that uses dynamically stable trot gait pattern to perform different movement activities where two diagonal legs lifted at the time of motion.
- Six Legged Robotic System:
Six legged robots commonly known as hexapod robots are best example of displaying perfect stability concept due to the better use of tripod gait where three legs are always with the contact of ground surface, control complexity becomes reduce but the limb synchronization is key concern in the six legged hexapod robots. Six legged robot named as Rise (Robots in Scansorial Environments) biologically inspired developed by Boston Dynamics in collaboration with few technical universities that can climb over vertical and horizontal surfaces like building & room walls, trees etc. By reducing the complexity of limb coordination, the central control mechanism of robot can be shifted to all legs to properly manage the locomotion technique. The controlling mechanism merge the output power of robotic joint controllers and put the footprints according to input. In the end, gait controlling system receives the output of individual leg controller and split the complex issues of controlling system into subsystems to make the task easier for operations of robotic system.
After discussing above mentioned different phases of locomotion technique, it has been concluded that there are various mechanisms used in robots to maneuver over varied environment conditions and robot scientists have done achieved a prominent success in developing legged and wheeled robotic mechanisms and have potential to show characteristics of stability, energy competence and controlling maneuverability.